# Conversion Factors

**SOLID cubic metre - STACKED cubic metre - LOOSE cubic metre**

*One solid cubic metre (m³ˢ) = 1.49 x stacked cubic metre (m³ˢᵗ) = 2.5 x loose cubic metre (m³ᶩͮ ) *

It is challenging to compare different fuels and their units because fairly many different terms and measurements are in use. Below are the different measurements for wood and other energy sources, and their mutual comparison simplified.

### Conversion Factors for Firewood’s Measurements

Conversion factors are used when comparing different measures of firewood. The reference values are average. For example, one solid cubic metre equals approximately 2.5 loose cubic metres. The exact range of equivalence is 2.2–2.6 -fold. One loose cubic metre equals approximately 0.40 solid cubic metres. Here the exact range of equivalence is 0.38–0.46 -fold.

Firewood’s measurements can be compared with each other and conversed into litres by using the conversion factors below. Do more volume calculations (in Finnish) here.

**Solid cubic metre (m³ˢ) **equals averagely

- 1.5 stacked cubic metres
- 2.5 loose cubic metres
- 1 000 liters

**Stacked cubic metre (m³ˢᵗ) **equals averagely

- 1.67 loose cubic metres
- 0.67 solid cubic metres
- 670 liters

**Loose cubic metre (m³ᶩͮ )** equals averagely

- 0.6 stacked cubic metres
- 0.4 solid cubic metres
- 400 liters

Loose cubic metre (m³ᶩͮ ) | Stacked cubic metre (m³ˢᵗ) | Solid cubic metre ( m³ˢ) |

1 | 0.6 | 0.4 |

1.67 | 1 | 0.67 |

2.5 | 1.5 | 1 |

*The reference values in the table are average.*

### Conversion Factors for Different Energy Sources

Comparing and understanding the energy content of different fuels is difficult, but converting them into kilowatt-hours makes the process easier. It is wise to compare different fuels, because comparing makes you understand the heating value of firewood and its potential as a source of energy. Biofuels are potential replacements for oil because of their cost- and energy-efficiency.

In the table below biofuels are compared with other energy sources. The conversion factors are approximate average numbers, since the energy-efficiency of biofuels varies along with the quality of the biomass.

#### 1 000 litres fuel oil/10 000 kWh ->

#### 2 100 kg pellet ->

#### 12.5 m³ wood chips ->

#### 6 stacked cubic metres of birch

*Using the table above, it can be calculated that, for example, the energy of one stacked cubic metre of dry birch chips equals approximately the energy of 170 litres of fuel oil. That is 1 700 kWh. *