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Glossary

A

Aggregate

A usually movable device that produces energy with a petrol or diesel engine.

Aurinkoteknillinen yhdistys ry

A Finnish organization established to further the use of solar energy in Finland.

Ash solidification

Ash melting in incinerator and then solidificating into hard stones, choking the incinerator.

 

B

Backburn

Initial fire in a bio heating plant. The fire moves from the furnace through the feeding system to the fuel storage.

Bio diesel

Fuel similar to diesel oil. Prepared of natural renewable raw material. Can be used in all diesel motors, e.g. in cars.

Bioenergy

A form of energy which by one way or the other gets its power from the sun. Bioenergy is clean and environmentally friendly, renewable energy which is got from trees, field plants and bio-based waste. Also wind, water and solar energy, and geothermal energy from ground and heat energy from air are defined as forms of bioenergy. Bioenergianeuvoja.fi’s own definition.

Biogas

Natural gas mix which forms when organic material is decomposed in oxygen free circumstances. Biogas can be used in heating or when cooking on gas stove, or it can be refined into fuel for transportation.

Bio heating plant

A power plant using biofuels, and producing only heat energy or heat and electric energy.

Biofuel

Fuel that is prepared of organic bio mass.

Bleeding

Removing air of a heating system’s water circulation.

Briquette

A processed fuel which is hydraulically compressed of saw dust or other similar mass into a tight capsule. Can be burned in fireplaces and stoker burners.

Briquetting

The process of hydraulically compressing raw material into briquettes.

 

C

Chipper

Machine that is used to chip wood. Different chippers are e.g. disc chipper, drum chipper and screw chipper.

Chips

See fire wood.

CHP (Combined Heat and Power)

Combined heat and power production.

Clearcutting

Cutting down all trees in the area, except the so called seed bearers.

Clearing

Removing forest undergrowth with a clearing saw or a pruning hook.

Cubic metre (m³)

Unit of measurement used in forestry. One cubic metre is length x width x height (1 m x 1 m x 1 m = 1 m³). More accurate units are solid cubic metre (m³ˢ), stacked cubic metre (m³ˢᵗ) and loose cubic metre, or bulk cubic metre (m³ᶩ ͮ).

 

D

Diameter breast high

Tree’s diameter measured 1,3 metres from the ground.

Disc chipper

The most common type of small chippers, best suitable for whole trees and trunks. The blades are fairly sensitive for pebbles and soil.

Double chamber boiler

A boiler which has two furnaces: one for wood and one for oil.

Drag conveyor

Burning device for solid biofuels. Unloads the fuel to a screw and prevents vaulting of the fuel in storage. The screw conveys the fuel to the burner. In large fuel storages there can be several drag conveyors.

Drum chipper

The most used chipper when chipping large-sized wood material and logging waste. Drum chipper is not selective in what comes to the size or form of the wood.

 

E

Energy willow

A willow tree grown for energy production purposes. It is used like wood chips.

Energy wood

Low-quality wood material with a smaller diameter than timber. Also logging waste and stumps are energy wood.

Energy gain

The energy gained from a hectare, kilo, cubic metre or other unit of measurement.

 

F

Felled and lopped pole

Pruned energy wood trunk.

Felling handle

An auxiliary tool for a chain saw to ease and speed up foresters work when cutting down energy wood.

Field biomasses

Plants grown on bogs and fields for energy purposes. For example reed canary grass, straw and turnip rape.

Finnish Biogas Association

Promotes the use of biogas and research, and improves the quality of information related to biogas in the Finnish society.

Fire seal

All inlets, possible holes and joint seals in compartmented structures. the purpose of fire seals is to prevent the spreading of fire, heat, smoke and poisonous gases between compartments.

Fire wood

Wood processed into an easily usable form. Also called logs, chippings and chips.

First thinning

The first felling of trees on a woodlot producing saleable wood. At this point the forest is about 30–40 years old.

Forest Management Associations

Regional, statutory associations of forest owners. Membership is optional.

Forwarder

A machine that is used to transport the felled tree trunks from forest to roadside.

 

G

Grate

A framework of metal bars in a fireplace, stove, or furnace. The part that separates furnace and ash container from each other.

 

H

Harvester

Tree felling machine, which enables very fast and effective tree cutting and pruning.

Harvester head bundle

A smallish wood pile which can be easily moved with a harvester head.

Harwarder

A combination of harvester and forwarder, designed to do both harvesting and short distance haul.

Heat dissipation

Heat energy that cannot be saved or that is being wasted during preparation and use. For example in poorly build houses, accumulators and pipeworks heat dissipation is high.

Hot-water tank

A storage for the heat produced. A water tank of some ten litres to thousands of litres. Usually used with wood heating. The tank enables the use of the heater at full stretch, even if the need is lower.

 

L

Leaf-seasoning method

A tree-felling technique. Trees are felled after leaves have stopped growing, then they are left lying on the ground unpruned so that moisture escapes through the leaves.

Log

See “Firewood”.

Logging road

A driving route that is about four metres wide, made in the forest for forestry machines to drive on. Space between two logging roads should be at least 20–30 metres. The bigger the space, the less damage is caused to the undergrowth, like saplings and moss.

Logging waste

Leftover material from cutting down trees, such as branches, tops and rotten parts of trees.

Logistics

A general term meaning transportation and storing of goods.

Lopping

Removing branches of a tree in order to ease its further processing and transportation. Synonym to pruning.

 

M

Mechanical grate

A grate placed inside incinerator distributing fuel evenly and effectively removing ash by movement.

Milled peat

Peat used in large-scale power plants.

Multi-stem head

A head connected to a harvester, which enables the simultaneous harvesting of many small trunks.

 

N

Natural gas

Different gases pumped from the ground or collected from the nature.

Near heat

Self-produced heat sold to neighbours.

 

O

Organic matter

Living, organic or nature-originating material.

 

P

Peat

Bio raw material which accumulates of dead plant material that decomposes in very moist circumstances. The decomposition is imperfect due to moisture and lack of oxygen, and thus a slowly growing layer of peat is produced. Peat is widely used in Finland in heat and electricity production.

Pellet

Different materials compressed into a small, energy-containing granule. Raw material is for example saw dust or horse manure.

Pile measuring

Measuring technique used in measuring timber, such as pulp wood and trunks. The wood is usually measured in piles on a roadside.

Phloem time

A time period in May and June, when trees are most vulnerable. The bark brakes and falls off easily.

Relascope (Point sampling device)

A simple instrument used for measuring the basal area of a tree stand. When the height of the tree stand and the dominant species are determined, the stand density (m³/ha) can be evaluated with the help of Relascope scales.

Primary air

Air that is fed into fire from underneath.

Pruning

Removing branches of a tree in order to ease its further processing and transportation.

Pulp wood

A small-sized tree used in paper and pulp production, the diameter of which should be at least 6–8 cm and length three metres.

 

R

Reed canary grass

A wild and grown grass in Finland used as fuel. Usually burned mixed with more ordinary fuels such as peat or wood chips.

 

S

Safety valve

A component in a closed system, the purpose of which is to prevent positive pressure of the liquid in the system.

Screw chipper

Smaller and cheaper chippers than drum chippers. The screw, which functions as a blade, is attached to a rotating horizontal axis. Due to the blade structure, the tractor used with it has to have great torsional moment. For the same reason, changing the blade is laborious. Screw chipper is sensitive to pebbles and soil.

Secondary air

Air conducted to the top part of a furnace. It is used to burn most of the combustion gases formed during the burning process.

Seeding stand

An area of planted or wild saplings.

Silo

A type of fuel storage with a slanted bottom. Among others pellet and grain can be stored in a silo.

Sod peat

End product of a certain peat collection technique, in which peat is prepared into “bits”. Can be burned in very small stokers and in other burning systems.

Solar cell/collector

A device that transforms solar energy to electric or heat energy. Can be placed on a roof for electricity or heat collection.

Solar power

The utilisation of insolation for electric and heat energy purposes.

Spring agitator

A device for the combustion of solid biofuels, such as chips and peat. Spring agitator feeds the fuel from the storage to the screw, and the screw conveys the fuel to the burner. The spring agitator prohibits vaulting of the fuel.

Stand marked for cutting

A forest area planned to be cut down.

Stoker

A burner/automatic biofuel feeder used with central heating boiler. Almost any fuel can be burned in a stoker, e.g. chips, peat, pellet and briquette.

Strip bark

Peeling the bark partially off the trunk or breaking the bark to speed up the drying of the wood. Usually this is done mechanically with a wood head at the same time when the trunk is pruned.

Stump chips

Chips made of stumps by grinding them. Used in large-scale power plants.

Stumpage price

The price of wood when the buyer cuts the trees down in a standing forest.

Suomen metsäkeskus – The Finnish Forest Centre

A governmental forestry organisation covering the whole country, whose task is to enforce the Forest Act and to promote sustainable forestry and forest-based livelihoods.

 

T

Tapio

Tapio Consulting Services is an expert organization in the field of sustainable forestry.

The Finnish Wind Power Association

The primary aim of this association is to increase awareness of wind power using independent scientific information, and to increase the use of wind power in all its forms in Finland.

Thinning

30 % of the tree stand on the area is cut down in order to increase the growth of the remaining trees.

Timber

Any raw material wood which is cost-effective to process in the woodworking industry. Usually the diameter of the tree top must be at least 6–8 cm.

Tree top mass

Wood material from tree tops.

 

U

Undergrowth

A forestry term meaning the clearly younger tree specimen than the main tree growth in the area, or for example bushes, willows, saplings, ferns and sprigs.

 

W

Wind power

Kinetic energy of wind transformed into energy by using wind turbines.

Wind turbine

A device used to transform wind into electricity.

Whole-tree chips

Chips made of trunks and branches. The fuel used in bio heating plants.

Wood chips

Mechanically into small bits chipped wood, which can be used in special purpose-build fully automated systems.

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